“The prolonged use of cell phones may have negative effects on the sperm motility characteristics.”
Fejes I1, Závaczki Z, Szöllosi J, Koloszár S, Daru J, Kovács L, Pál A.
This study was conducted to determine a possible relationship between regular cell phone use and different human semen attributes. The history-taking of men in our university clinic was supplemented with questions concerning cell phone use habits, including possession, daily standby position and daily transmission times. Semen analyses were performed by conventional methods. Statistics were calculated with SPSS statistical software. A total of 371 were included in the study. The duration of possession and the daily transmission time correlated negatively with the proportion of rapid progressive motile sperm (r = -0.12 and r = -0.19, respectively), and positively with the proportion of slow progressive motile sperm (r = 0.12 and r = 0.28, respectively). The low and high transmitter groups also differed in the proportion of rapid progressive motile sperm (48.7% vs. 40.6%). The prolonged use of cell phones may have negative effects on the sperm motility characteristics.
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“It was also confirmed that a decrease in the percentage of sperm cells in vital progressing motility in the semen is correlated with the frequency of using mobile phones.”
Wdowiak, A., Wdowiak, L., and Wiktor, H.
The problem of the lack of offspring is a phenomenon concerning approximately 15% of married couples in Poland. Infertility is defined as inability to conceive after a year of sexual intercourses without the use of contraceptives. In half of the cases the causative factor is the male. Males are exposed to the effect of various environmental factors, which may decrease their reproductive capabilities. A decrease in male fertility is a phenomenon which occurs within years, which may suggest that one of the reasons for the decrease in semen parameters is the effect of the development of techniques in the surrounding environment. A hazardous effect on male fertility may be manifested by a decrease in the amount of sperm cells, disorders in their mobility, as well as structure. The causative agents may be chemical substances, ionizing radiation, stress, as well as electromagnetic waves. The objective of the study was the determination of the effect of the usage of cellular phones on the fertility of males subjected to marital infertility therapy. The following groups were selected from among 304 males covered by the study: Group A: 99 patients who did not use mobile phones, Group B: 157 males who have used GSM equipment sporadically for the period of 1-2 years, and Group C: 48 people who have been regularly using mobile phone for more than 2 years. In the analysis of the effect of GSM equipment on the semen it was noted that an increase in the percentage of sperm cells of abnormal morphology is associated with the duration of exposure to the waves emitted by the GSM phone. It was also confirmed that a decrease in the percentage of sperm cells in vital progressing motility in the semen is correlated with the frequency of using mobile phones.
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“Radiofrequency electromagnetic waves emitted from cell phones may lead to oxidative stress in human semen. We speculate that keeping the cell phone in a trouser pocket in talk mode may negatively affect spermatozoa and impair male fertility.”
Agarwal A1, Desai NR, Makker K, Varghese A, Mouradi R, Sabanegh E, Sharma R.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate effects of cellular phone radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) during talk mode on unprocessed (neat) ejaculated human semen.
DESIGN: Prospective pilot study.
SETTING: Center for reproductive medicine laboratory in tertiary hospital setting.
SAMPLES: Neat semen samples from normal healthy donors (n = 23) and infertile patients (n = 9).
INTERVENTION(S): After liquefaction, neat semen samples were divided into two aliquots. One aliquot (experimental) from each patient was exposed to cellular phone radiation (in talk mode) for 1 h, and the second aliquot (unexposed) served as the control sample under identical conditions.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Evaluation of sperm parameters (motility, viability), reactive oxygen species (ROS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of semen, ROS-TAC score, and sperm DNA damage.
RESULT(S): Samples exposed to RF-EMW showed a significant decrease in sperm motility and viability, increase in ROS level, and decrease in ROS-TAC score. Levels of TAC and DNA damage showed no significant differences from the unexposed group.
CONCLUSION(S): Radiofrequency electromagnetic waves emitted from cell phones may lead to oxidative stress in human semen. We speculate that keeping the cell phone in a trouser pocket in talk mode may negatively affect spermatozoa and impair male fertility.
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“Decrease in sperm count and an increase in apoptosis may be causative factor due to mobile radiation exposure leading to infertility.”
Kesari KK, Kumar S, Behari J.
A significant decrease in protein kinase C and total sperm count along with increased apoptosis were observed in male Wistar rats exposed to mobile phone frequencies (2 h/day x 35 days at 0.9 W/kg specific absorption rate). The results suggest that a reduction in protein kinase activity may be related to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under microwave field exposure. Decrease in sperm count and an increase in apoptosis may be causative factor due to mobile radiation exposure leading to infertility.
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“Our results showed that cell phone use negatively affects sperm quality in men.”
Gutschi T1, Mohamad Al-Ali B, Shamloul R, Pummer K, Trummer H.
The objective of the present retrospective study was to report our experience concerning the effects of cell phone usage on semen parameters. We examined 2110 men attending our infertility clinic from 1993 to October 2007. Semen analysis was performed in all patients. Serum free testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) were collected from all patients. The information on cell phone use of the patients was recorded and the subjects were divided into two groups according to their cell phone use: group A: cell phone use (n=991); group B: no use (n=1119). Significant difference was observed in sperm morphology between the two groups. In the patients of group A, 68.0% of the spermatozoa featured a pathological morphology compared to only 58.1% in the subjects of group B. Patients with cell phone usage showed significantly higher T and lower LH levels than those who did not use cell phone. No significant difference between the two groups was observed regarding FSH and PRL values. Our results showed that cell phone use negatively affects sperm quality in men. Further studies with a careful design are needed to determine the effect of cell phone use on male fertility.
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“Our findings on these biomarkers are clear indications of possible health implications of repeated exposure to mobile phone radiation.”
Kesari, KK., and Behari, J.
The relationship between radiofrequency electromagnetic fields emitted from mobile phone and infertility is a matter of continuing debate. It is postulated that these radiations may affect the reproduction pattern spell by targeting biochemistry of sperm. In an attempt to expedite the issue, 70 days old Wistar rats (n = 6) were exposed to mobile phone radiofrequency (RF) radiation for 2 h per day for 45 days and data compared with sham exposed (n = 6) group. A significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the level of testosterone and an increase in caspase-3 activity were found in the RF-exposed animals. Distortions in sperm head and mid piece of sperm mitochondrial sheath were also observed as captured by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). In addition, progeny from RF-exposed rats showed significant decreases in number and weight as compared with that of sham-exposed animals. A reduction in testosterone, an increase in caspase-3, and distortion in spermatozoa could be caused by overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in animals under mobile phone radiation exposure. Our findings on these biomarkers are clear indications of possible health implications of repeated exposure to mobile phone radiation.
Full study is available here.
“Electromagnetic radiation may induce oxidative stress, damage sperm nuclear DNA, and eventually reduce sperm quality; these factors negatively affect male fertility.”
Shang-Shu Ding, Ping Sun, Hong Tian, Yong-Wei Huo, Li-Rong Wang, Yan Han, Zhou Zhang, Xiang Liu, Jun-Ping Xing
We evaluated the semen quality and oxidative stress attack on spermatozoa nuclear DNA after men were exposed to a combination of electromagnetic radiation from an 1800-MHz 4G smartphone network and 2.45-GHz wi-fi. According to the daily network exposure time, the subjects involved were divided into three groups, namely group one: less than 30 min; group two: 31-120 min; and group three: more than 121 min. Routine semen tests, re- active oxygen species levels, total antioxidant capacity, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase, 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine expression, and urine and comet assays were conducted for all participants and the results for the three groups were compared. With extended exposure time, reactive oxygen increased, while to- tal antioxidant capacity, glutathione and superoxide dismutase, and superoxide dismutase decreased. Increased expression of 8-OHdG and sperm DNA fragments (head DNA% decreased while tail DNA% and Olive tail moment increased) was observed. Sperm count, vitality, and motility decreased significantly. Electromagnetic radiation may induce oxidative stress, damage sperm nuclear DNA, and eventually reduce sperm quality; these factors negatively affect male fertility.
Full study available here.
“Current knowledge provides justification for governments, public health authorities, and physicians/allied health professionals to warn the population that having a cell phone next to the body is harmful, and to support measures to reduce all exposures to RFR”
Anthony B. Miller, Margaret E. Sears, L. Lloyd Morgan, Devra L. Davis, Lennart Hardell, Mark Oremus, and Colin L. Soskolne.
Radiation exposure has long been a concern for the public, policy makers, and health researchers. Beginning with radar during World War II, human exposure to radio-frequency radiation1 (RFR) technologies has grown substantially over time. In 2011, the International Agency for Research on Cancer(IARC) reviewed the published literature and categorized RFR as a “possible” (Group 2B) human carcinogen. A broad range of adverse human health effects associated with RFR have been reported since the IARC review. In addition, three large-scale carcinogenicity studies in rodents exposed to levels of RFR that mimic lifetime human exposures have shown significantly increased rates of Schwannomas and malignant gliomas, as well as chromosomal DNA damage. Of particular concern are the effects of RFR exposure on the developing brain in children. Compared with an adult male, a cell phone held against the head of a child exposes deeper brain structures to greater radiation doses per unit volume, and the young, thin skull’s bone marrow absorbs a roughly 10-fold higher local dose. Experimental and observational studies also suggest that men who keep cell phones in their trouser pockets have significantly lower sperm counts and significantly impaired sperm motility and morphology, including mitochondrial DNA damage. Based on the accumulated evidence, we recommend that IARC re-evaluate its 2011 classification of the human carcinogenicity of RFR, and that WHO complete a systematic review of multiple other health effects such as sperm damage. In the interim, current knowledge provides justification for governments, public health authorities, and physicians/allied health professionals to warn the population that having a cell phone next to the body is harmful, and to support measures to reduce all exposures to RFR.